International Standards on Judicial Independence

Judicial independence shall be guaranteed and enshrined in the Constitution or law of the country. It is the duty of all governmental and other institutions to respect and observe the independence of the judiciary.


United Nations Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary
The United Nations Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary were formulated to assist Member States in their task of securing and promoting the independence of judges and lawyers.
Bangalore Principles of Judicial Conduct
The Bangalore Principles of Judicial Conduct identify six core values of the judiciary – Independence, Impartiality, Integrity, Propriety, Equality, Competence and Diligence. They are intended to establish standards of ethical conduct for judges.
United Nations Convention Against Corruption
The Convention introduces a comprehensive set of standards, measures and rules that all countries can apply in order to strengthen their legal and regulatory regimes to fight corruption. It calls for preventive measures and the criminalization of the most prevalent forms of corruption in both public and private sectors.
Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers
Adopted by the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Havana, Cuba 27 August to 7 September 1990
Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors
Adopted by the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Havana, Cuba, 27 August to 7 September 1990.

Resolutions Adopted by the United Nations

Based on the resolution 1994/41, the UN Special Rapporteur should identify and record not only attacks on the independence of the judiciary, lawyers and court officials, but also progress achieved in protecting and enhancing their independence.


Resolution 1994/41 - adopted on March 4, 1994
Independence and impartiality of the judiciary, jurors and assessors and the independence of lawyers.
Resolution 60/251 - adopted on April 3, 2006
Decides that the Human Rights Council shall be responsible for promoting universal respect for the protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction of any kind and in a fair and equal manner.
Resolution 2006/102 - adopted on August 25, 2006
The Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights
Resoluction E/CN.15/2008/L.10/Rev.2 - adopted on April 14-18, 2008
Strengthening the rule of law through improved integrity and capacity of prosecution services
Resolution 17/2 - adopted on July 6, 2011
Report of the Human Rights Council on its Seventeenth Session - Mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the Independence of Judges and Lawyers.
Resolution 8/6 - adopted on January 23, 2012
Mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the independence of judges and lawyers
Resolution 26/7 - adopted on July 10, 2017
Resolution adopted by the Human Rights Council- Mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the independence of judges and lawyers.
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