Zambia’s Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2016

Judicial Independence

Article 18: Provisions to Secure Protection of Law 1. If any person is charged with a criminal offence, then, unless the charge is withdrawn, the case shall be afforded a fair hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial court established by law. […]
Article 122: Functional independence of Judiciary 1. In the exercise of the judicial authority, the Judiciary shall be subject only to this Constitution and the law and not be subject to the control or direction of a person or an authority. 2. A person and a person holding a public office shall not interfere with the performance of a judicial function by a judge or judicial officer. 3. The Judiciary shall not, in the performance of its administrative functions and management of its financial affairs, be subject to the control or direction of a person or an authority. 4. A person and a person holding a public office shall protect the independence, dignity and effectiveness of the Judiciary. 5. The office of a judge or judicial officer shall not be abolished while there is a substantive holder of the office.

Judicial Council or Parallel Institution

Article 145. 1. The Judicial Service Commission shall appoint judicial officers, as prescribed. 2. The qualification for appointment as judicial officer shall be prescribed. 3. A judicial officer shall retire on attaining the age of sixty-five years. 4. A judicial officer may retire, with full benefits, on attaining the age of fifty-five years.
Article 146. 1. There shall be a Chief Administrator for the Judiciary who shall be appointed by the Judicial Service Commission. 2. The functions and qualifications of the Chief Administrator for the Judiciary shall be prescribed.

Attorney General’s Office

Article 177. 1. There shall be an Attorney-General, who shall be appointed by the President, subject to ratification by the National Assembly. 2. The Attorney-General shall not hold another public office. 3. The Attorney-General shall be a person qualified to be appointed as a judge. […]

Human Rights Council

Reimagining justice: confronting contemporary challenges to the independence of judges and lawyers, June 26, 2023

General Assembly

Judicial independence in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, October 14, 2022

Human Rights Council

Protection of lawyers against undue interference in the free and independent exercise of the legal profession, June 21, 2022

General Assembly

Participation of women in the administration of justice, October 13, 2021

Human Rights Council

Report on Impact and challenges of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic for independent justice, June 28, 2021

General Assembly

Report on Disciplinary Proceedings Against Judges, October 15, 2020

Human Rights Council

Report: Independence of Public Prosecutors, Corruption and Human Rights, July 13, 2020

General Assembly - October 16, 2019

Report on the UN Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary

Human Rights Council - June 24, 2019

Report on freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly of judges and prosecutors