Malaysia’s Constitution of 1957 with Amendments through 2007

Judicial Power

Article 121. 1. There shall be two High Courts of coordinate jurisdiction and status, namelya. one in the States of Malaya, which shall be known as the High Court in Malaya and shall have its principal registry at such place in the States of Malaya as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong may determine; and b. one in the States of Sabah and Sarawak, which shall be known as the High Court in Sabah and Sarawak and shall have its principal registry at such place in the States of Sabah and Sarawak as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong may determine; […].

Judicial Council or Parallel Institution

Article 138. 1. There shall be a Judicial and Legal Service Commission, whose jurisdiction shall extend to all members of the judicial and legal service. 2. The Judicial and Legal Service Commission shall consist of a. the Chairman of the Public Services Commission, who shall be Chairman; b. the Attorney General or, if the Attorney General is a member of Parliament or is appointed otherwise than from among members of the Judicial and Legal Service, the Solicitor General; and c. one or more other members who shall be appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, after consultation with the Chief Justice of the Federal Court, from among persons who are or have been or are qualified to be a judge of the Federal Court, Court of Appeal or a High Court or shall before Malaysia Day have been a judge of the Supreme Court. 3. The person who is secretary to the Public Services Commission shall be secretary also to the Judicial and Legal Service Commission.

Attorney General’s Office

Article 145. 1. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall, on the advice of the Prime Minister, appoint a person who is qualified to be a judge of the Federal Court to be the Attorney General for the Federation. 2. It shall be the duty of the Attorney General to advise the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or the Cabinet or any Minister upon such legal matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may from time to time be referred or assigned to him by the Yang di- Pertuan Agong or the Cabinet, and to discharge the functions conferred on him by or under this Constitution or any other written law. 3. The Attorney General shall have power, exercisable at his discretion, to institute, conduct or discontinue any proceedings for an offence, other than proceedings before a Syariah court, a native court or a court-martial.

Human Rights Council

Reimagining justice: confronting contemporary challenges to the independence of judges and lawyers, June 26, 2023

General Assembly

Judicial independence in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, October 14, 2022

Human Rights Council

Protection of lawyers against undue interference in the free and independent exercise of the legal profession, June 21, 2022

General Assembly

Participation of women in the administration of justice, October 13, 2021

Human Rights Council

Report on Impact and challenges of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic for independent justice, June 28, 2021

General Assembly

Report on Disciplinary Proceedings Against Judges, October 15, 2020

Human Rights Council

Report: Independence of Public Prosecutors, Corruption and Human Rights, July 13, 2020

General Assembly - October 16, 2019

Report on the UN Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary

Human Rights Council - June 24, 2019

Report on freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly of judges and prosecutors