Italy’s Constitution of 1947 with Amendments through 2012

Judicial Independence

Art 104. The Judiciary is a branch that is autonomous and independent of all other powers.

Judicial Council or Parallel Institution

Article 87. The President of the Republic is the Head of the State and represents national unity. The President may send messages to Parliament. The President shall: •authorise the introduction to Parliament of bills initiated by the Government; •promulgate laws and issue decrees having the force of law, and regulations •call a general referendum in the cases provided for by the Constitution; •appoint State officials in the cases provided for by the law;•accredit and receive diplomatic representatives, and ratify international treaties which have, where required, been authorised by Parliament. The President is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, shall preside over the Supreme Council of Defence established by law, and shall make declarations of war as have been agreed by Parliament. The President shall preside over the High Council of the Judiciary. The President may grant pardons and commute punishments. The President shall confer the honorary distinctions of the Republic. Article 104. […] The High Council of the Judiciary is presided over by the President of the Republic. The first president and the general prosecutor of the Court of Cassation are members by right. Two thirds of the members are elected by all the ordinary judges belonging to the various categories, and one third are elected by Parliament in joint session from among university professors of law and lawyers with fifteen years of practice. The Council elects a vice-president from among those members designated by Parliament. Elected members of the Council remain in office for four years and cannot be immediately re-elected. They may not, while in office, be registered in professional rolls, nor serve in Parliament or on a Regional Council.

Attorney General Office

Art 112. The public prosecutor has the obligation to institute criminal proceedings.

General Assembly - October 16, 2019

Report on the UN Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary

Human Rights Council - June 24, 2019

Report on freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly of judges and prosecutors

General Assembly - October 25, 2018

Report on Bar Associations

Human Rights Council - June 22, 2018

Report on Judicial Councils

General Assembly -October 17, 2017

Report on Judicial Corruption and Organized Crime

Human Rights Council - June 12, 2017

Report on Judicial Corruption and Organized Crime