Italy’s Constitution of 1947 with Amendments through 2012

Judicial Independence

Art 104. The Judiciary is a branch that is autonomous and independent of all other powers.

Judicial Council or Parallel Institution

Article 87. The President of the Republic is the Head of the State and represents national unity. The President may send messages to Parliament. The President shall: •authorise the introduction to Parliament of bills initiated by the Government; •promulgate laws and issue decrees having the force of law, and regulations •call a general referendum in the cases provided for by the Constitution; •appoint State officials in the cases provided for by the law;•accredit and receive diplomatic representatives, and ratify international treaties which have, where required, been authorised by Parliament. The President is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, shall preside over the Supreme Council of Defence established by law, and shall make declarations of war as have been agreed by Parliament. The President shall preside over the High Council of the Judiciary. The President may grant pardons and commute punishments. The President shall confer the honorary distinctions of the Republic. Article 104. […] The High Council of the Judiciary is presided over by the President of the Republic. The first president and the general prosecutor of the Court of Cassation are members by right. Two thirds of the members are elected by all the ordinary judges belonging to the various categories, and one third are elected by Parliament in joint session from among university professors of law and lawyers with fifteen years of practice. The Council elects a vice-president from among those members designated by Parliament. Elected members of the Council remain in office for four years and cannot be immediately re-elected. They may not, while in office, be registered in professional rolls, nor serve in Parliament or on a Regional Council.

Attorney General Office

Art 112. The public prosecutor has the obligation to institute criminal proceedings.

Human Rights Council

Reimagining justice: confronting contemporary challenges to the independence of judges and lawyers, June 26, 2023

General Assembly

Judicial independence in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, October 14, 2022

Human Rights Council

Protection of lawyers against undue interference in the free and independent exercise of the legal profession, June 21, 2022

General Assembly

Participation of women in the administration of justice, October 13, 2021

Human Rights Council

Report on Impact and challenges of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic for independent justice, June 28, 2021

General Assembly

Report on Disciplinary Proceedings Against Judges, October 15, 2020

Human Rights Council

Report: Independence of Public Prosecutors, Corruption and Human Rights, July 13, 2020

General Assembly - October 16, 2019

Report on the UN Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary

Human Rights Council - June 24, 2019

Report on freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly of judges and prosecutors