Bahrain’s Constitution of 2002 with Amendments through 2017

Judicial Independence

Article 104 a. The honor of the judiciary, and the probity and impartiality of judges, is the basis of government and the guarantee of rights and freedoms. b. No authority shall prevail over the judgment of a judge, and under no circumstances may the course of justice be interfered with. The law guarantees the independence of the judiciary, and the law shall lay down the guarantees of judges and the provisions pertaining to them. […] Article 105. A Higher Judicial Council shall be established by law to supervise the smooth running of work in the courts and their supporting organs. The powers of the Higher Judicial Council in the functional affairs of judicial personnel and the Public Prosecution Office shall be prescribed by law.

Judicial Council or Parallel Institution

Article 133. […] h. The King chairs the Higher Judicial Council. The King appoints judges by Royal Orders, as proposed by the Higher Judicial Council. […]

Attorney General’s Office

Article 104. […] c. The law shall lay down the provisions pertaining to the Public Prosecution Office, the tasks of the office for delivery of formal legal opinions, the preparation of legislation, State representation before the law, and personnel employed on such matters. • Attorney general d. The provisions governing advocacy shall be regulated by law. […]

Human Rights Council

Reimagining justice: confronting contemporary challenges to the independence of judges and lawyers, June 26, 2023

General Assembly

Judicial independence in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, October 14, 2022

Human Rights Council

Protection of lawyers against undue interference in the free and independent exercise of the legal profession, June 21, 2022

General Assembly

Participation of women in the administration of justice, October 13, 2021

Human Rights Council

Report on Impact and challenges of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic for independent justice, June 28, 2021

General Assembly

Report on Disciplinary Proceedings Against Judges, October 15, 2020

Human Rights Council

Report: Independence of Public Prosecutors, Corruption and Human Rights, July 13, 2020

General Assembly - October 16, 2019

Report on the UN Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary

Human Rights Council - June 24, 2019

Report on freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly of judges and prosecutors